The Earth’s Climate

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The Earth's Climate



Multimedia presentation put on line in march 2011

This is the 16th report of the CNRS/Sagascience multimedia collection.

Web design and production:
CNRS Office of communications/Sagascience team
Jean-Marc Dumas, Christine Girard, Sylvie Langlois


Texts by
Christine Girard and Sylvie Langlois, based on the following sources:
Qu'est-ce que l'effet de serre ?(What is the Greenhouse Effect?) on: www.manicore.com by Jean-Marc Jancovici, engineering consultant, energy and climate expert.
Température moyenne à la surface de la Terre et effet de serre(Average Temperature at the Earth's Surface and the Greenhouse Effect), article by Marie-Antoinette Mélières, lecturer emeritus, Université de Grenoble.
Climat et société (Climate and Society), Marie-Antoinette Mélières and Chloé Maréchal, SCÉRÉN-CRDP, Académie de Grenoble.
The following articles from the website La Main à la Pâte: La Circulation Oceanique (Oceanic Circulation), L'Effet de Serre (The Greenhouse Effect), Les Saisons (The Seasons), Le Cycle de l'Eau (The Water Cycle).

Music
Total cost , www.barakazik.fr
Voice
Hester Wilcox
Sound engineer
Thomas Huguet

Scientific validation:
1 -The Sun and the Greenhouse Effect
Robert Kandel, CNRS honorary senior researcher, LMD/IPSL (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory), Palaiseau.

"Solar radiation": François Leblanc, CNRS researcher, LATMOS (Laboratoire Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Atmospheres, Environments and Space Observations Laboratory).

"Ozone": Sophie Godin-Beekmann, CNRS senior researcher, LATMOS (Laboratoire Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Atmospheres, Environments and Space Observations Laboratory).

"Greenhouse gases": Philippe Bousquet, lecturer, Université Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Climate and Environmental Sciences Laboratory), Gif sur Yvette.

"Albedo": Robert Kandel, CNRS honorary senior researcher, LMD/IPSL (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory), Palaiseau.

"The water cycle": Rémy Roca, CNRS researcher, LMD/IPSL (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory), Palaiseau.

2 - Movements and inclination
Michel Capderou, lecturer, Université de Paris VI, LMD/IPSL (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory), Palaiseau.

"Solar energy": Robert Kandel, CNRS honorary senior researcher, LMD/IPSL (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory), Palaiseau
.
"The Earth's position": Michel Capderou, lecturer, Université de Paris VI, LMD/IPSL (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory), Palaiseau.

"The seasons": Michel Capderou, lecturer, Université de Paris VI, LMD/IPSL (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory), Palaiseau.

3 - Atmosphere and oceans
Pascale Delécluse, deputy research director, Météo France.

"The Coriolis Force": Pascale Delécluse, deputy research director, Météo France.

"Thermohaline circulation": Pascale Delécluse, deputy research director, Météo France.

4 - Climates and biomes
Jean-Yves Grandpeix, CNRS researcher, LMD/IPSL (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory), Palaiseau.


Credits and captions of the illustrations in the program

Part 1 – The Sun and the Greenhouse Effect
CNRS Images: animated sequences: spider, lemur, chameleon, baboon / images from the film Le Microcèbe by Alain R. Devez, 1999; animation of the water cycle / images from the film Les Bilans d’Eau et de Carbone d’une Forêt Méditerranéenne by Philippe Paddeu.
CNRS Photothèque: Stratocumulus, Mali (photo by Françoise Guichard, Laurent Kergoat); Sunset in Drake Passage, Antarctica (photo by Claude Delhaye).
Wikimedia Commons: Anvil-shaped cumulus (photo: Fir0002 / Flagstaffotos); aerosol sprays (photo by STUE - http://streetfiles.org/stue).

Part 2 – Movements and inclination
CNRS Photothèque / HERD: Elephants in the savanna, Zimbabwe (photo: Hervé Fritz).
Wikimedia Commons: Snow at Veneux-Nadon by Alfred Sisley, 1880, Musée d’Orsay; Summer, Field of Poppies by Claude Monet, 1875, private collection; The Gennevilliers Plain by Gustave Caillebotte, 1888; Landscape by Jean-Baptiste Armand Guillaumin, 1870; Monsoon torrents in Ambala in 2010 (photo: Harsh Mangal).


Part 3 - Atmosphere and oceans
Berkeley University / High Performance Computing Research Department: "Single cell" model of atmospheric convection, without rotation of the Earth (excerpt from The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001); "Three cell" model of atmospheric convection (excerpt from The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001): cutaway view showing the Jet Stream (excerpt from The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001).
CNRS Photothèque: Earth disc image, METEOSAT (ESA), infrared "temporal variation". This image highlights the high themporal variability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (known for its sporadic rainfall) and low variability above the oceans with cloudless skies or a low cloud cover (whose temperature is close to that of the ocean) (© CNRS Photothèque/ESA/Météosat/L. Picon).
CNRS Images: Animation of oceanic circulation; Waves on the ocean. Excerpt from the film Dans les Profondeurs du Climat, 2008. Production Eur-Océans, CNES, CNRS Images.
LPO (Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Ocean Physics Laboratory, CNRS/IFREMER/IRD/UBO): Trajectory of a water particle in the World Ocean over a period of 550 years, based on the Nemo-OPA model (© Bruno Blanke).
NASA: Satellite animation showing the path of Hurricane Ike above the American continent. Animated satellite images from GOES, a NASA/GSFC/NOAA project; Animation of thermohaline circulation (© The Visible Earth/NASA).
passion-meteo.net: Simple diagram of Hadley cells (http://www.passion-meteo.net/dossiers/cellules_hadley.htm).
Wikimedia commons: Thermal convection; Average vertical movement in July at 500 hPa. The rising air (negative values in blue) is concentrated near the Equator (author: W. M. Connolley); Satellite photo of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (© NOAA/NASA); Clouds along the Jet Stream above Canada (NASA Image); Diagram of thermohaline circulation; Storm in Piriac-sur-Mer, Brittany, France (photo: Rémi Jouan); Satellite image showing a depression centered on the Denmark Strait between Iceland and Greenland. The winds, drawn by the low pressure area in the center, curve under the effect of the Coriolis Force, resulting in the spiral form seen here (image: NASA); Illustration of the effect of the Coriolis Force on the winds in the Northern Hemisphere. The Coriolis Force is shown in red; Air pressure map; Trajectory of the Gulf Stream. Based on a NOAA map (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/2minrelief.html) (author: RedAndr).
Jet Stream, Northern Hemisphere. © DR.


Part 4 - Climates and biomes
CNRS Photothèque: Sastrugi near the French-Italian Concordia station, Dome C, Antarctica (© CNRS Photothèque/IPEV/photo: C. DELHAYE); Xanthoria elegans, an orange-colored leafy lichen that colonizes cliffs and rock outcrops fertilized by seabird guano. Kongsfjord, Brögger Peninsula, Spitzberg, Norway (photo: M. F. ANDRE); Shrub savanna in Agoufou, Mali (photo: F. GUICHARD, L. KERGOAT); Primary forest in Gabon (photo: A. R. DEVEZ); Village in Papua New Guinea (photo: L. BRUTTI); Nomadic shepherds in Ladakh, India (photo: P. DOLLFUS); A Chukchi woman preparing deer tripe, Atchaïvaïam region, Kamchatka, Siberia ("Système Renne"/"Reindeer System" program); Rupshu nomads herding flocks of sheep and goats to summer pastures, Ladakh, India (photo: P. DOLLFUS); Women of the Oksapmin tribe dancing during a funeral ceremony, Papua New Guinea (photo: L. BRUTTI); Crowd of pilgrims worshipping in a cathedral square, Romania (photo: C. MACHEREL); Pilgrimage to Aparecida do Norte, São Paulo, Brazil (photo: H. THERY); Rantepao Market, Indonesia (photo: J. KOUBI); Inhabitants of the village of Tatapap, Papua New Guinea (photo: L. BRUTTI); Cow in the street in Mumbai, India (photo: H. THERY); Shopping street in the island of Zanzibar (photo: D. LACHAISE).
Wikimedia commons: Direct reading rain gauge (photo: Kolling); Meteorological station in the taiga, Russia (photo: Becker 0804); Los Lobos, Canary Islands, Spain (photo: F. Del Bene); Rain in the streets of Kolkata, India (photo: Monster eagle); Animation of the progress of the snow cover according to the seasons (author: Reisio, based on a NASA satellite map); Animation of the world's surface temperature (month by month) (author: PZmaps, based on data from CRU, NECP/NCAR, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, World Coast Line); Monthly breakdown of rainfall on Earth (author: PZmaps, based on CRU data); Aerial view of the Greenland ice sheet (photo: Hannes Grobe); Isunngua, Greenland (photo: Algkalv); The tundra in Russia (photo: Andreas Hugentobler); Snowy owl; Reindeer in Spitzberg (photo: Per Harald Olsen); White spruce forest in the Alaskan taiga (photo: NOAA/L. B. Brubaker); Brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) running (photo: M. Thyssen); Yukon River, Canada (photo: Kiko2000); Arctic hare (photo: Ansgar Walk); Autumn forest scene in Vermont, USA (photo: chensiyuan); European beaver (photo: Per Harald Olsen); Forest on Mount Haguro, Japan (author: Crown of Lenten Rose); Fox, Slovakia (photo: Karelj); Prairie in northern China (photo: JQN); African prairie, Malawi (photo: T. Wagner); The Argentine pampa (photo: C. Elias); Prairie, Illinois, USA (photo: R. Lawton); Coastal fynbos at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa (photo: Edweed); Garrigue (scrubland) in Martigues, France (photo: Airair); Mediterranean landscape, Israel (photo: G. Pisanty); Mediterranean type landscape, USA (photo: J. Hart); The Australian bush (photo: Fir0002); Death Valley, California, USA (photo: Urban); Desert scene in Argentina (photo: A. Jones); Guanacos (Lama glama) in the Atacama Desert, Chile (photo: R. Jahn); The Little Sandy Desert, western Australia (photo: Peter WH); Landscape in the Sertão of the Northeast, Brazil, a region with a semi-arid climate (photo: Every there); The Australian savanna (photo: T. Schoch); Lion in the African savanna (photo: eismcsquare); Tapanti National Park, Costa Rica (photo: Mardocharis); Atlantic forest, Paraguay (photo: Ilosuna); Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli), Cameroon (photo: J. Langford); Tropical rainforest, Australia (photo: Diliff); Forest bordering Pirihueico Lake, Chile (photo: S. Simenon); Redwood National Park, California, USA (photo: M. Schweppe); Fiordland National Park, New Zealand (photo: C. Briggs); Ferns in the temperate rainforest of Valdivia, Chile (photo: Dentren); Vegetation of the temperate rainforest, Tasmania, Australia (photo: J. J. Harrison); Mount McKinley, the highest peak in North America, Alaska, USA (photo: Nic McPhee); Moraine Lake, Banff National Park, Canada (photo: Gorgo); Lake Gentau reflecting the Pic du Midi d'Ossau mountain, France (photo: Myrabella); The Blue Mountains, Australia (photo: Diliff); Mouflon sheep (photo: Hajotthu); The New York Marathon, USA (photo: Martineric); Group of children, Niutao Island, Tuvalu, Oceania (photo: Cesqld); Inuits in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada (photo: Ansgar Walk); Gypsies on a pilgrimage to Saintes Maries de la Mer, France (photo: Yann); Skating in Central Park, New York, USA (photo: T. Fano); Embarkation on a beach, Niutao Island, Tuvalu, Oceania (photo: Cesqld); A street in Ilulissat, Greenland (photo: V. van Zeijst); Footrace in Sydney, Australia (photo: T. Horner); The Champs Elysées, Paris, France (photo: Ricce); Grand Central Station, New York, USA (photo: Diliff); The start of a new school year in Upernavik, Greenland (photo: K. Hansen); Gathering in Gawler, Australia (photo: R. Lister); The "Nuits Sonores" electronic music festival in Lyon, France (photo: D. Cupolo); Times Square, New York, USA (photo: Terabass); A farmer in Bangladesh (photo: B. Mahalder); Mariannenplatz Festival, Berlin, Germany (photo: Alex 1011); Composite image of the Earth at night (data courtesy of Marc Imhoff of NASA GSFC and Christopher Elvidge of NOAA NGDC, image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC).

Map of the five major climatic zones. Based on data from FAO Sustainable Development Department (SD) – 2006. Global Climate Maps. Koeppen Climate Classification Map (http://www.fao.org/sd/EIdirect/climate/EIsp0002.htm).

Simplified map of the Earth's biomes. © DR.



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