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w 4 | In the News cnrs I international magazine CO2 at a Glance w Everything you always wanted to know about CO2 emissions is now accessible on the Global Carbon Atlas, a new online platform designed to “explore, visualize, and interpret global and regional carbon data arising from both human activities and natural processes.” The Global Carbon Atlas was completed through the combined efforts of over 30 laboratories worldwide. It was coordinated by Philippe Ciais from the LSCE1 and sponsored by the Climate Initiative Program of the BNP Paribas Foundation. The platform compiles and provides data on CO2 emissions from various energy sources (oil, coal, gas, etc.) in 216 countries and territories. The attractive and playful design makes it a very efficient tool for informing all citizens, from politicians to the general public. 01. Laboratoire des sciences du climat et de l’environnement (CNRS / CEA / UVSQ). Earth’s Magnetic Field under SWARM Scrutiny w On November 22, 2013, the European Space Agency (ESA) successfully launched three identical SWARM satellites from the Plesetsk spaceport in northern Russia. For four years, these will monitor the Earth’s magnetic field, measuring precisely the signals originating from the Earth’s core, mantle, crust and oceans, as well as its ionosphere and magnetosphere. Two of the satellites will fly side by side (approximately 150 km apart) at an initial altitude of 460 km, while the third will rise up to an initial altitude of 530 km. This constellation will make it possible to collect simultaneous data from three different local times and locations, and help distinguish the sources of the various magnetic signals detected. The satellites carry the same instruments, three of which are exclusively dedicated to the study of the magnetic field. The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer, specifically designed by French teams,1 can measure the strength of the magnetic field with unprecedented accuracy. The Earth’s magnetic field originates from every magnetic source—electric currents and magnetic matters—present inside it, on its surface, and in its close spatial environment. It acts as a protective shield against solar winds, cosmic radiation, and charged particles that bombard our planet. It is currently weakening over the South Atlantic and Southern American regions. It has also been known to periodically reverse orientation, a phenomenon preceded by a progressive worldwide decrease in its intensity. A better understanding of its mechanism is therefore vital to anticipate changes. 01. From CEA-Leti, Centre national d’études spatiales, and Institut de physique du globe de Paris. Contact Information: IPGP, Paris. Gauthier Hulot > gh@ipgp.fr q A rtist’s view of SWARM, the ESA’s three-satellite constellation. qPictured here, a map showing tons of CO2 emitted per person in 2012 from natural gas consumption. online. > www.globalcarbonatlas.org © global car bon pr ojec t/Cdiac © ESA - P. Carril Nomination French Mathematician Heads the ERC w On January 1st, 2014, French mathematician Jean-Pierre Bourguignon became the new president of the European Research Council (ERC). Bourguignon studied at France’s prestigious Ecole Polytechnique, and obtained his PhD in mathematics at Paris-VII University. He spent his entire research career at the CNRS, and also held a professorship at the Ecole Polytechnique from 1986 to 2012. Between 1994 and 2013, he was director of the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS). This international research institute, whose visiting professors include many Fields Medal recipients, contributes significantly to French excellence in mathematics. Bourguignon sits on the scientific board of several European institutions. He was also president of the Société Mathématique de France (1990-1992) and of the European Mathematical Society (1995- 1998). He is a foreign member of the Royal Spanish Academy of Sciences and has been a member of the Academia Europaea since 1996. He was elected honorary member of the London Mathematical Society in 2005, made Doctor Honoris Causa of Keio University (Japan) in 2008, and Doctor Honoris Causa of Nankai University (China) in 2011. © M. SABAH


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