Page 3

CIM33

N°33 I quarterly I April 2014 Contents | 3 Editorial by An toin e Prost Professor emeritus at the CHS 1 Historical questions change over time, and historians seek sources to answer them. This is how historiography evolves, resulting in a succession of varying “truths.” It is therefore not surprising that this issue’s special report focuses on a new historical interpretation of the First World War. Between 1919 and 1939, historians of the Great War sought primarily to assign responsibility for the tragedy: the focus was on diplomatic and military history. Following a period of neglect after the Second World War, social history turned its attention to the consequences of the conflict of 1914-18 and their links to the revolutions in Russia and Germany. Historical interest moved from the chancelleries, ministries, and front lines, to the cities and factories. Historians began to deal with groups of soldiers rather than armies. The opening of the Historial Museum of the Great War in Péronne (northern France) in 1992 marked two turning points. Firstly, the “Historial”— conceived by historians from France, the UK, and Germany—fosters an approach that goes beyond purely nationalistic considerations. Secondly, it has led to a “cultural turn.” Indeed, the reality of trench warfare is so unthinkable today that it is difficult to understand why soldiers stayed to fight. Historians’ answers to this question differ, some emphasizing that the troops were imbued with patriotism while others point out that they had no choice. Perhaps the time has come for a more sociological approach that focuses on the army as an institution and on the relations (which vary from country to country) between regular and reserve troops, between officers and soldiers—in other words, a shift from a history of soldiers to a history of military society. 01. Centre d’histoire sociale du XXe siècle (CNRS / Université Paris-I). 4 I 5 In the News CNRS President Alain Fuchs reappointed, ERC consolidator grants, Giant virus frozen in time, and the latest awards. 16 I 17 Profile Mathematician Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, new president of the European Research Council. 31 Insights The UN’s International Year of Family Farming. 32 I 37 CNRS Networks Germany country profile, the IFAECI is renewed, Mathematicians head for Seoul, and a Middle-East observatory. 38 CNRS Facts and Figures Latest data on the largest fundamental scientific institution in Europe. 39 Snapshot Zooming in on fluorescencelabeled fission yeasts. DR 6 I 15 Live from the Labs Black holes revisited, Single-molecule LEDs, Genetics and nicotine addiction, Better cancer cures, Quantum information, Tiny particles that bind, Emperor penguins, Soap bubbles and tropical cyclones, Gondwana survivors, and the latest in innovation. These pictograms indicate extra content (pictures or videos) that can be accessed on the online version of the magazine. > www.cnrs.fr/cnrsmagazine © C. FRESILLON/LOMA/CNRS Photot hèque 28 I 30 In Images Observing habituated mandrills in the forests of Gabon. © C. DELHAYE/CNRS Photot hèque 18 I 27 Focus 1914-18: The World at War 18 I The Origins of the Conflict 22 I The Legacy of World War I 25 I Laboratories at War © Hulton -Deutsc h Collection /CORBIS To receive the online version of CNRS International Magazine in your inbox, email us at: cnrs-magazine@cnrs-dir.fr


CIM33
To see the actual publication please follow the link above